Late Heart Pleistocene Levallois stone-tool expertise in southwest China

Abstract

Levallois approaches are one of many categorical known variants of ready-core applied sciences, and are an crucial hallmark of stone applied sciences developed around 300,000 years in the past in Africa and west Eurasia1,2. Present archaeological proof means that the stone expertise of east Asian hominins lacked a Levallois component at some stage in the late Heart Pleistocene epoch and it’s a ways rarely until the Late Pleistocene (around Forty,000–30,000 years in the past) that this expertise spread into east Asia in affiliation with a dispersal of unique humans. Right here we voice proof of Levallois expertise from the lithic assemblage of the Guanyindong Cave dwelling in southwest China, dated to roughly 170,000–Eighty,000 years in the past. To our data, this is the earliest proof of Levallois expertise in east Asia. Our findings thus subject the present mannequin of the origin and spread of Levallois applied sciences in east Asia and its hyperlinks to a Late Pleistocene dispersal of unique humans.

Select up admission to choicesSelect up admission to choices

Subscribe to Journal

Select up full journal entry for 1 year

$199.00

handiest $3.90 per subject

All costs are NET costs.

VAT will likely be added later in the checkout.

Hire or Win article

Select up time little or full article entry on ReadCube.

from$eight.ninety nine

All costs are NET costs.

Data availability

All data are on hand from the corresponding authors upon cheap seek data from.

Further data

Publisher’s dispute: Springer Nature stays just with regard to jurisdictional claims in printed maps and institutional affiliations.

References

  1. 1.

    Monnier, G. F. The Lower/Heart Paleolithic periodization in western Europe: an review. Curr. Anthropol. Forty seven, 709–744 (2006).

  2. 2.

    Mcbrearty, S. & Brooks, A. S. The revolution that wasn’t: a brand recent interpretation of the origin of unique human behavior. J. Hum. Evol. 39, 453–563 (2000).

  3. 3.

    Lycett, S. J. & Eren, M. I. Levallois lessons: the subject of integrating mathematical gadgets, quantitative experiments and the archaeological file. World Archaeol. forty five, 519–538 (2013).

  4. Four.

    Foley, R. & Lahr, M. M. Mode 3 applied sciences and the evolution of unique humans. Camb. Archaeol. J. 7, 3–36 (1997).

  5. 5.

    Adler, D. S. et al. Early Levallois expertise and the Lower to Heart Paleolithic transition in the Southern Caucasus. Science 345, 1609–1613 (2014).

  6. 6.

    Tryon, C. A., McBrearty, S. & Texier, P.-J. Levallois lithic expertise from the Kapthurin formation, Kenya: Acheulian origin and Heart Stone Age differ. Afr. Archaeol. Rev. 22, 199–229 (2005).

  7. 7.

    Akhilesh, Ok. et al. Early Heart Palaeolithic culture in India around 385–172 ka reframes Out of Africa gadgets. Nature 554, Ninety seven–one zero one (2018).

  8. eight.

    Boëda, E., Hou, Y. M., Forestier, H., Sarel, J. & Wang, H. M. Levallois and non-Levallois blade manufacturing at Shuidonggou in Ningxia, North China. Quat. Int. 295, 191–203 (2013).

  9. 9.

    Li, F., Chen, F., Wang, Y. & Gao, X. Know-how diffusion and population migration reflected in blade applied sciences in northern China in the Late Pleistocene. Sci. China Earth Sci. fifty nine, 1540–1553 (2016).

  10. 10.

    Brantingham, P. J., Olsen, J. W., Rech, J. A. & Krivoshapkin, A. I. Raw subject matter quality and ready core applied sciences in northeast Asia. J. Archaeol. Sci. 27, 255–271 (2000).

  11. Eleven.

    Li, F. et al. The easternmost Heart Paleolithic (Mousterian) from Jinsitai Cave, North China. J. Hum. Evol. 114, 76–Eighty Four (2018).

  12. 12.

    Seong, C. & Bae, C. J. The japanese Asian ‘Heart Palaeolithic’ revisited: a discover from Korea. Antiquity 90, 1151–1165 (2016).

  13. thirteen.

    Sato, H., Nishiaki, Y. & Suzuki, M. in The Definition and Interpretation of Levallois Know-how (eds Dibble, H. L. & Bar-Yosef, O.) 485–500 (Prehistory Press, Madison, 1995).

    • 14.

      Zwyns, N. in Encyclopedia of World Archaeology (eds Gladyshev, S. et al.) 5025–5032 (Springer, Modern York, 2014).

      • 15.

        Gao, X. & Norton, C. J. A critique of the Chinese language ‘Heart Palaeolithic’. Antiquity 76, 397–412 (2002).

      • 16.

        Li, Y. & Wen, B. Guanyindong: A Lower Paleolithic Situation at Qianxi County, Guizhou Province (Cultural Relics Press, Beijing, China, 1986).

        • 17.

          Shen, G. J. & Jin, L. H. U-assortment dating of speleothem samples from Guanyindong Cave at Qianxi County, Guizhou Province. Acta Anthropologica Sinica Eleven, Ninety three–a hundred (1992).

        • 18.

          Yuan, S. X., Chen, T. M. & Gao, S. J. Uranium assortment chronological sequence of some Paleolithic net sites in South China. Acta Anthropologica Sinica 5, 179–a hundred ninety (1986).

        • 19.

          Grün, R., Eggins, S., Kinsley, L., Moseley, H., Sambridge, M. Laser ablation U-assortment diagnosis of fossil bones and tooth. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 416, 100 fifty–167 (2014). 

        • 20.

          Lisiecki, L. E. & Raymo, M. E. A Pliocene–Pleistocene stack of Fifty seven globally dispensed benthic δ18O records. Paleoceanography 20, PA1003 (2005).

        • 21.

          Wang, W. et al. Panxian Dadong, South China: setting up a file of Heart Pleistocene climatic changes. Asian Perspect. forty three, 302–313 (2004).

        • 22.

          Karkanas, P., Schepartz, L. A., Miller-Antonio, S., Wang, W. & Huang, W. Late Heart Pleistocene climate in southwestern China: inferences from the stratigraphic file of Panxian Dadong Cave, Guizhou. Quat. Sci. Rev. 27, 1555–1570 (2008).

        • 23.

          Richter, D. et al. The age of the hominin fossils from Jebel Irhoud, Morocco, and the origins of the Heart Stone Age. Nature 546, 293–296 (2017).

        • 24.

          Hershkovitz, I. et al. The earliest unique humans outside Africa. Science 359, 456–459 (2018).

        • 25.

          Liu, W. et al. Human stays from Zhirendong, South China, and unique human emergence in East Asia. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 107, 19201–19206 (2010).

        • 26.

          Liu, W. et al. The earliest unequivocally unique humans in southern China. Nature 526, 696–699 (2015).

        • 27.

          Li, Z.-Y. et al. Late Pleistocene archaic human crania from Xuchang, China. Science 355, 969–972 (2017).

        • 28.

          Fu, Q. et al. DNA diagnosis of an early unique human from Tianyuan Cave, China. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA a hundred and ten, 2223–2227 (2013).

        • 29.

          Yamei, H. et al. Mid-Pleistocene Acheulean-fancy stone expertise of the Bose basin, South China. Science 287, 1622–1626 (2000).

        • 30.

          Li, H., Kuman, Ok. & Li, C. What’s for the time being (un)known about the Chinese language Acheulean, with implications for hypotheses on the sooner dispersal of hominids. C. R. Palevol. 17, 100 twenty–A hundred thirty (2016).

        • 31.

          Boëda, E. in The Definition and Interpretation of Levallois Know-how (eds Dibble, H. & Bar-Yosef, O.) forty one–68 (Prehistory Press, Madison, 1995).

          • 32.

            Brantingham, P. J. & Kuhn, S. L. Constraints on Levallois core expertise: a mathematical mannequin. J. Archaeol. Sci. 28, 747–761 (2001).

          • 33.

            Eren, M. I. & Lycett, S. J. Why Levallois? A morphometric comparison of experimental ‘preferential’ Levallois flakes versus debitage flakes. PLoS ONE 7, e29273 (2012).

          • 34.

            White, M., Ashton, N. & Scott, B. in The Dilapidated Human Occupation of Britain (eds Ashton, N. et al.) 53–sixty six (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2011).

            • 35.

              Van Belief, P. The Levallois slit price design (Prehistory Press, Madison, 1992).

              • 36.

                Schlanger, N. Working out Levallois: lithic expertise and cognitive archaeology. Camb. Archaeol. J. 6, 231–254 (1996).

              • 37.

                Mellars, P. A. The Neanderthal Legacy: An Archaeological Level of view from Western Europe (Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, 1995).

                • 38.

                  Monnier, G. F. & Missal, Ok. One more Mousterian Debate? Bordian facies, chaîne opératoire technocomplexes, and patterns of lithic variability in the western European Heart and Better Pleistocene. Quat. Int. 350, fifty nine–eighty three (2014).

                • 39.

                  Malinsky-Buller, A. The litter in the Heart Pleistocene: the Lower–Heart Paleolithic transition from the Levantine perspective. J. World Prehist. 29, 1–78 (2016).

                • Forty.

                  Barzilai, O., Malinsky-Buller, A. & Ackermann, O. Kefar Menachem West: a Lower Paleolithic dwelling in the southern Shephela, Israel. J. Israel Prehist. Soc. 36, 7–38 (2006).

                • forty one.

                  White, M. & Ashton, N. Lower Palaeolithic core expertise and the origins of the Levallois methodology in north-western Europe. Curr. Anthropol. 44, 598–609 (2003).

                • forty two.

                  Niu, D. et al. The preliminary Better Palaeolithic in northwest China: recent proof of cultural variability and substitute from Shuidonggou locality 7. Quat. Int. 400, 111–119 (2016).

                • forty three.

                  Shimelmitz, R., Weinstein-Evron, M., Ronen, A. & Kuhn, S. L. The Lower to Heart Paleolithic transition and the diversification of Levallois expertise in the Southern Levant: proof from Tabun Cave, Israel. Quat. Int. 409, 23–Forty (2016).

                • 44.

                  Brantingham, P. J., Kuhn, S. L. & Kerry, Ok. W. The Early Better Paleolithic previous Western Europe (California Univ. Press, 2004).

                  • forty five.

                    Cahen, D. Les industries préhistoriques des nappes alluviales de Petit-Spiennes et de Mesvin. Notae Praehistoricae 1, 70–seventy Four (1981).

                  • 46.

                    Cahen, D., Haesaerts, P. & Watteyne, D. La nappe alluviale de Petit-Spiennes et le début du débitage levallois dans la vallée de la Haine. Archaeologia Belgica Bruxelles 1, 7–16 (1985).

                  • Forty seven.

                    Watteyne, D. Petit-Spiennes: industrie (s) a débitage Levallois et para-Levallois. Notae Praehistoricae 5, 95–104 (1985).

                  • forty eight.

                    Roe, D. A. The Lower and Heart Palaeolithic Periods in Britain Vol. 46 (Routledge, London, 2014).

                    • 49.

                      Otte, M. in The Definition and Interpretation of Levallois expertise (eds Dibble, H. & Bar-Yosef, O.) 117–124 (Prehistory Press, Madison, 1995).

                      • 50.

                        Ryssaert, C. Some recent insights in an same outdated assortment: lithic expertise at Mesvin IV. Notae Praehistoricae 26, ninety one–ninety nine (2006).

                        • fifty one.

                          Kuhn, S. L. Mousterian Lithic Know-how (Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, 1995).

                          • fifty two.

                            Delagnes, A. in The Definition and Interpretation of Levallois expertise Monographs in World Archaeology Vol. 23 (eds Bar-Yosef, O. & Dibble, H.) 201–212 (Prehistory Press, Madison, 1995).

                            • 53.

                              Chazan, M. Redefining Levallois. J. Hum. Evol. 33, 719–735 (1997).

                            • Fifty four.

                              Picin, A. Technological adaptation and the emergence of Levallois in Central Europe: recent insight from the Markkleeberg and Zwochau birth-air net sites in Germany. J. Quat. Sci. 33, 300–312 (2018).

                            • 55.

                              Boëda, E. & Pelegrin, J. Approche technologique du nucleus levallois a éclat. Etudes Préhistoriques Lyon 15, forty one–forty eight (1979).

                            • Fifty six.

                              Boëda, E. Approche technologique du principle Levallois et évaluation de son champ d’application: étude de trois gisement saaliens et weichseliens de la France septentrionale. PhD thesis, Université de Paris X (1986).

                              • Fifty seven.

                                Scott, R. The Early Heart Palaeolithic of Britain; origins, expertise and landscape. PhD thesis, Durham University (2006).

                                • fifty eight.

                                  Bolton, L. Assessing the Origins of Levallois thru Lower Palaeolithic Core Variation: A Comparative Sight of Easy Willing Cores in Northwest Europe. PhD thesis, University of Southampton (2015).

                                  • fifty nine.

                                    Huntley, D. J., Godfrey-Smith, D. I. & Thewalt, M. L. W. Optical dating of sediments. Nature 313, one zero five–107 (1985).

                                  • 60.

                                    Aitken, M. J. An Introduction to Optical Dating (Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, 1998).

                                    • Sixty one.

                                      Roberts, R. G. et al. Optical dating in archaeology: thirty years in retrospect and vast challenges for the future. J. Archaeol. Sci. Fifty six, forty one–60 (2015).

                                    • Sixty two.

                                      Wintle, A. G. Luminescence dating: laboratory procedures and protocols. Radiat. Meas. 27, 769–817 (1997).

                                    • 63.

                                      Bøtter-Jensen, L. & Mejdahl, V. Review of beta dose-charge using a GM multicounter machine. Int. J. Rad. Appl. Instrum. D 14, 187–191 (1988).

                                    • Sixty Four.

                                      Rhodes, E. J. & Schwenninger, J.-L. Dose rates and radioisotope concentrations in the concrete calibration blocks at Oxford. Dilapidated TL 25, 5–eight (2007).

                                    • sixty five.

                                      Mercier, N. & Falguères, C. Field gamma dose-charge measurement with a NaI(Tl) detector: re-examination of the “threshold” design. Anc. TL 25, 1–Four (2007).

                                    • sixty six.

                                      Prescott, J. R. & Hutton, J. T. Cosmic-ray contributions to dose rates for luminescence and ESR dating: sizable depths and long-time frame time variations. Radiat. Meas. 23, 497–500 (1994).

                                    • sixty seven.

                                      Smith, M. A., Prescott, J. R. & Head, M. J. Comparison of 14C and luminescence chronologies at Puritjarra rock shelter, central Australia. Quat. Sci. Rev. 16, 299–320 (1997).

                                    • 68.

                                      Bøtter-Jensen, L., Andersen, C. E., Duller, G. A. T. & Murray, A. S. Developments in radiation, stimulation and observation providers in luminescence measurements. Radiat. Meas. 37, 535–541 (2003).

                                    • 69.

                                      Bøtter-Jensen, L., Bulur, E., Duller, G. A. T. & Murray, A. S. Advances in luminescence instrument systems. Radiat. Meas. 32, 523–528 (2000).

                                    • 70.

                                      Galbraith, R. F., Roberts, R. G., Laslett, G. M., Yoshida, H. & Olley, J. M. Optical dating of single and a pair of grains of quartz from Jinmium rock shelter, northern Australia: allotment 1, experimental create and statistical gadgets. Archaeometry forty one, 339–364 (1999).

                                    • 71.

                                      Murray, A. S. & Wintle, A. G. Luminescence dating of quartz using an improved single-aliquot regenerative-dose protocol. Radiat. Meas. 32, Fifty seven–Seventy three (2000).

                                    • 72.

                                      Duller, G. A. T. Distinguishing quartz and feldspar in single grain luminescence measurements. Radiat. Meas. 37, 161–165 (2003).

                                    • Seventy three.

                                      Jacobs, Z., Duller, G. A. T. & Wintle, A. G. Interpretation of single grain D
                                      e distributions and calculation of D
                                      e. Radiat. Meas. forty one, 264–277 (2006).

                                    • seventy Four.

                                      Galbraith, R. F. & Roberts, R. G. Statistical facets of linked dose and error calculation and display in OSL dating: an outline and a few ideas. Quat. Geochronol. Eleven, 1–27 (2012).

                                    • seventy five.

                                      Gliganic, L. A., Jacobs, Z., Roberts, R. G., Domínguez-Rodrigo, M. & Mabulla, A. Z. P. Modern ages for Heart and Later Stone Age deposits at Mumba rockshelter, Tanzania: optically stimulated luminescence dating of quartz and feldspar grains. J. Hum. Evol. Sixty two, 533–547 (2012).

                                    • 76.

                                      Duller, G. A. T. Bettering the accuracy and precision of linked doses particular using the optically stimulated luminescence imprint from single grains of quartz. Radiat. Meas. Forty seven, 770–777 (2012).

                                    • 77.

                                      Thomsen, Ok. J. et al. Checking out single-grain quartz OSL systems using sediment samples with honest age take watch over from the Bordes-Fitte rockshelter (Roches d’Abilly dwelling, Central France). Quat. Geochronol. 31, 77–ninety six (2016).

                                    • 78.

                                      Guo, Y.-J. et al. Modern ages for the Better Palaeolithic dwelling of Xibaimaying in the Nihewan Basin, northern China: implications for tiny-tool and microblade industries in north-east Asia at some stage in Marine Isotope Phases 2 and three. J. Quat. Sci. 32, 540–552 (2017).

                                    • seventy nine.

                                      Li, B., Jacobs, Z. & Roberts, R. G. Investigation of the applicability of standardised increase curves for OSL dating of quartz from Haua Fteah cave, Libya. Quat. Geochronol. 35, 1–15 (2016).

                                    • Eighty.

                                      Li, B., Jacobs, Z., Roberts, R. G., Galbraith, R. & Peng, J. Variability in quartz OSL alerts precipitated by measurement uncertainties: issues and choices. Quat. Geochronol. forty one, Eleven–25 (2017).

                                    • eighty one.

                                      Roberts, H. M. & Duller, G. A. T. Standardised increase curves for optical dating of sediment using a pair of-grain aliquots. Radiat. Meas. 38, 241–252 (2004).

                                    • eighty two.

                                      Li, B., Roberts, R. G., Jacobs, Z. & Li, S. H. Likely of setting up a ‘world standardised increase curve’ (gSGC) for optical dating of quartz from sediments. Quat. Geochronol. 27, ninety four–104 (2015).

                                    • eighty three.

                                      Roberts, R. G., Galbraith, R. F., Yoshida, H., Laslett, G. M. & Olley, J. M. Distinguishing dose populations in sediment combinations: a check of single-grain optical dating procedures using combinations of laboratory-dosed quartz. Radiat. Meas. 32, 459–465 (2000).

                                    • Eighty Four.

                                      Galbraith, R. F. & Green, P. F. Estimating the component ages in a finite combination. Int. J. Rad. Appl. Instrum. D 17, 197–206 (1990).

                                    • eighty five.

                                      Guralnik, B. et al. Radiation-precipitated increase and isothermal decay of infrared-stimulated luminescence from feldspar. Radiat. Meas. eighty one, 224–231 (2015).

                                    • 86.

                                      Rousseeuw, P. J. & Croux, C. Options to the median absolute deviation. J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 88, 1273–1283 (1993).

                                    • 87.

                                      Rousseeuw, P. J., Debruyne, M., Engelen, S. & Hubert, M. Robustness and outlier detection in chemometrics. Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 36, 221–242 (2006).

                                    • 88.

                                      Arnold, L. J. & Roberts, R. G. Stochastic modelling of multi-grain linked dose (D
                                      e) distributions: implications for OSL dating of sediment combinations. Quat. Geochronol. Four, 204–230 (2009).

                                    Receive references

                                    Acknowledgements

                                    This work used to be supported by the Australian Be taught Council thru Future Fellowships to B.L. (FT140100384) and B.M. (FT140100101), a grant from the National Science Foundation of China to J.-F.Z. (NSFC, 41471003), postgraduate scholarships from the University of Wollongong to Y.H. and X.R. and the China Scholarship Council to X.R. (201506010345), the Chinese language Academy of Science (CAS) Strategic Precedence Be taught Program Grants of ‘Macroevolutionary Processes and Paleoenvironments of Major Historic Biota’ (XDPB05), Affirm Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, CAS (SKLLQG1501) and National Science Foundation of China (41272033) to Y.-M.H. We thank S. Lin for support with artefact diagnosis and treasured comments on the manuscript; Y.-M. Hou for support with CT scanning on stone artefacts; R. G. Roberts, Z. Jacobs, Y. Jafari and T. Lachlan for strengthen and support in the OSL laboratory; M. Otte and P. Zhang for treasured discussions on lithic assemblage; Y.-S. Lou, N. Ma, X.-W. Li and L. Lei for support with lithic observation.

                                    Reviewer data

                                    Nature thanks C. A. Tryon and the diversified anonymous reviewer(s) for their contribution to the gaze review of this work.

                                    Creator data

                                    Affiliations

                                    1. Centre for Archaeological Science, College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Modern South Wales, Australia

                                      • Yue Hu
                                      • , Ben Marwick
                                      • , Xue Rui
                                      •  & Bo Li
                                    2. Division of Anthropology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA

                                      • Ben Marwick
                                    3. MOE Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, Division of Geography, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China

                                      • Jia-Fu Zhang
                                    4. Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese language Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

                                      • Ya-Mei Hou
                                      • , Jian-Ping Yue
                                      •  & Wei-Wen Huang
                                    5. CAS Centre for Excellence in Life and Paleo-ambiance, Beijing, China

                                      • Ya-Mei Hou
                                      •  & Jian-Ping Yue
                                    6. Qianxi County Bureau of Cultural Relics Safety, Bijie, China

                                      • Wen-Rong Chen
                                    7. ARC Centre of Excellence for Australian Biodiversity and Heritage, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Modern South Wales, Australia

                                      • Bo Li

                                    Authors

                                    1. Be taught about Yue Hu in:

                                    2. Be taught about Ben Marwick in:

                                    3. Be taught about Jia-Fu Zhang in:

                                    4. Be taught about Xue Rui in:

                                    5. Be taught about Ya-Mei Hou in:

                                    6. Be taught about Jian-Ping Yue in:

                                    7. Be taught about Wen-Rong Chen in:

                                    8. Be taught about Wei-Wen Huang in:

                                    9. Be taught about Bo Li in:

                                    Contributions

                                    B.L., Y.H., W.-W.H. and J.-F.Z. conceived and coordinated the watch; Y.H., B.M. and J.-P.Y. conducted the stone artefact diagnosis; B.L., Y.H., J.-F.Z., W.-R.C., W.-W.H. and Y.-M.H. planned and directed field investigations and stratigraphic diagnosis. Y.H., B.L., J.-F.Z., X.R., W.-W.H. and Y.-M.H. amassed samples for dating; Y.H., B.L., J.-F.Z. and X.R. measured OSL samples and analysed the dating results; B.M., B.L. and Y.H. wrote the manuscript, with contributions from the diversified authors.

                                    Competing pursuits

                                    The authors advise no competing pursuits.

                                    Corresponding authors

                                    Correspondence to
                                    Ben Marwick or Bo Li.

                                    Extended data figures and tables

                                    1. Extended Data Fig. 1 Photos showing the landscape and region of the Guanyindong Cave.

                                      a, Southward discover of the Guanyindong Cave. b, The principle entrance of the cave.

                                    2. Extended Data Fig. 2 Opinion discover and stratigraphy of the Guanyindong Cave.

                                      a, Opinion discover of the cave, fundamental excavation home and the residual profiles from the south wall. The blue dots and the numbers subsequent to each and each of the dots describe the areas of U-assortment dating samples had been taken previously17 (ogle Supplementary Data for dialogue of the U-assortment results); sample codes from 1 to eight are QGC-19-1, QGC-19-2, QGC-Four, QGC-21, QGB-Four, QGC-7 and QGC-23, respectively. The green circles are the areas of profiles 1, 2a, 2b and three. The crimson squares indicate the areas of the residual profiles S1 and S2, where the OSL samples had been taken. b, Detail of the numbered stratigraphic layers at the predominant entrance of the cave. The stratigraphic layer numbers are shown in yellow circles. The crimson rectangles indicate the areas of the 2 south-wall sections (S1 and S2) where OSL samples had been taken. The areas of OSL samples are shown in crimson circles, with the sample code shown internal (as an illustration, number 1 represents GYD-OSL1; ogle Extended Data Figs. 3, Four for more tiny print). a, b, Photos had been adapted from a outdated watch16, copyright 1986.

                                    3. Extended Data Fig. 3 Total discover of the residual profile S1 from the cave entrance.

                                      a, Photo taken from the internal of the cave, showing the dwelling of the residual profile S1 at the south wall (marked by a rectangle with tiny print shown in b and c). b, Photo showing tiny print of the residual profile S1 at the south wall and the dwelling of all OSL samples from layer 1 and layers Four–eight. The predominant points of layers 3–9 at some stage in the yellow rectangle are shown in c. c, Photo showing the facts of sedimentary layers 3–9 of neighborhood B, and the dwelling of OSL samples. The stratigraphic layer numbers are shown in blue circles and the dwelling of OSL samples are marked by yellow circles with sample names shown subsequent to each and each of them. The dashed yellow traces in b and c indicate the boundaries between the layers.

                                    4. Extended Data Fig. Four Total discover of the residual profile S2 outside the cave entrance.

                                      a, Photo taken from high of the cave, showing the dwelling of the residual profile S2 (indicated by the rectangle). b, Photo taken from outside the cave, showing the dwelling of the residual profile S2 (indicated by the rectangle). c, Photo showing the facts of sedimentary layers (layer 2 and transformed layer 1) of residual profile S2, and the dwelling of OSL samples. The dashed yellow line reveals the boundary between layers 1 and a pair of. The stratigraphic layer numbers are shown in blue circles and the dwelling of OSL samples are marked by yellow circles with sample names shown subsequent to each and each of them.

                                    5. Extended Data Fig. 5 Photos of chosen Levallois cores.

                                      a, d, f, Levallois recurrent cores. b, c, e, Levallois preferential cores. The line drawings of these artefacts are shown in Fig. 3a–f. The artefacts shown in b and c had been recovered from neighborhood A.

                                    6. Extended Data Fig. 6 Photos of chosen Levallois flakes and tools.

                                      gokay, n, Levallois flakes. l, Débordant. m, Instruments made on Levallois blanks. o, p, Pseudo-Levallois aspects. The line drawings of these artefacts are shown in Fig. 3g–p.

                                    7. Extended Data Fig. 7 Photos of chosen Levallois tools and flakes with ready platform.

                                      qs, Instruments made on Levallois blanks. tz, Flakes with ready platforms. The line drawings of these artefacts are shown in Fig. 3q–z. The artefact shown in q used to be recovered from neighborhood A, and those shown in r and s had been from neighborhood B.

                                    8. Extended Data Fig. eight Distributions of metric variables on flakes.

                                      a, Histogram of flake lengths, colored by dimension class. b, Box-and-whisker plots of a different of metric variables to level technological variation across the scale courses to voice the lithic slit price sequence (n = 1,177 flakes). Centre traces indicate data median, bins indicate first and nil.33 quartiles (the twenty fifth and seventy fifth percentiles), and the whiskers lengthen from the upper and lower hinge to the largest and smallest values that are no extra than 1.5 times the interquartile differ from the hinge (which is the gap between the predominant and nil.33 quartiles). Data previous the tip of the whiskers are outlying aspects and are plotted individually. Linear dimensions are measured in mm, mass in g.

                                    9. Extended Data Fig. 9 Distributions of technological attributes of flakes across the five dimension courses.

                                      n = 1,177 flakes.

                                    10. Extended Data Fig. 10 Comparison of flakes from the upper (neighborhood A) and lower (neighborhood B) layers of the deposit (n = 204), with 117 pieces from the lower layers (dated to 170–a hundred sixty ka) and 87 from the upper layer (dated to roughly 90–Eighty ka).

                                      a, Metric variables. Linear dimensions are measured in mm, mass in g. b, Technological variables. Centre traces indicate data median, bins indicate first and nil.33 quartiles (the twenty fifth and seventy fifth percentiles), and the whiskers lengthen from the upper and lower hinge to the largest and smallest values no extra than 1.5 times the interquartile differ from the hinge. Data previous the tip of the whiskers are outlying aspects and are plotted individually.

                                    Supplementary data

                                    1. Supplementary Data

                                      This file accommodates Supplementary Discussions, Supplementary Tables 1-5, Supplementary Figures 1-24, References, and Supplementary Data.

                                    2. Reporting Summary

                                    About this text

                                    E-newsletter ancient previous

                                    Celebrated

                                    Printed

                                    DOI

                                    https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0710-1

                                    Comments

                                    By submitting a observation you settle to abide by our Phrases and Community Pointers. Must you gather something abusive or that does no longer agree to our phrases or guidelines please flag it as wicked.